Alexej Gerassimovitsch Polotebnov played an important role in the foundation of the Russian scientific school of dermatology. The international journeys to European dermatological centers, particularly in Vienna, were very important for his professional development. Through his initiative in all Russian universities the Chairs for skin and venereal diseases have been created. He wrote numerous works, which became the basis for his followers. Many of his works have been published in Europe and gained fame there.