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Dermoscopy of Green Nail Syndrome: The "Green Aurora Sign"

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021093. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a93. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024221 | PMC:PMC8648419 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a93

Категории: Специальные

Dermoscopy of Bacillary Angiomatosis: Utility in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Control

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021088. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a88. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024220 | PMC:PMC8648418 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a88

Категории: Специальные

Tinea Capitis in a Healthy Adult: An Unexpected Diagnosis Made on Dermoscopy

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021083. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a83. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024219 | PMC:PMC8648417 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a83

Категории: Специальные

An Atypical Presentation of Extragenital Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021072. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a72. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024218 | PMC:PMC8648415 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a72

Категории: Специальные

Vulvar Hidradenoma Papilliferum Dermoscopically Mimicking Basal Cell Carcinoma

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021070. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a70. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024216 | PMC:PMC8648414 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a70

Категории: Специальные

Classic and Simultaneous Clinical Findings of an Exuberant Case of Netherton Syndrome: A Clinical Report

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021065. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a65. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024214 | PMC:PMC8648412 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a65

Категории: Специальные

Performance of Ultrasound for Identifying Morphological Characteristics and Thickness of Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Dermatology. 2022 Jan 13:1-19. doi: 10.1159/000520751. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Advances in ultrasound technology and non-surgical treatments of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have raised the need to study the performance of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) in BCCs. We aimed to assess the performance of HFUS in the evaluation of BCCs to formulate recommendations for its uses and conducted a systematic review of the literature to do so. A search of Central, Medline, Embase, CINHAL, and Web of Science was performed using key/MESH terms "ultrasonography" and "basal cell carcinoma" (January 2005-December 2020). We included primary studies reporting biopsy-confirmed BCCs for which the target intervention was ultrasound assessment at 15 MHz or higher frequency. Thirty articles were included, studying a total of 1,203 biopsy-confirmed BCCs. HFUS provides accurate depth measurements, especially for BCCs >1 mm. The definition of lateral margins in vivo needs further studies; however, ex vivo margin assessment seems convincing. There is a diagnostic role for HFUS in identifying higher recurrence risk BCC subtypes, which can help in risk stratification. Performance of HFUS is significant in BCC management. Pre-surgical scans may support case selection for Mohs. HFUS can improve safety when used to plan brachytherapy treatments, help with case selection and adjunct treatment choice pre-photodynamic therapy. Finally, HFUS can help follow lesions after intervention, particularly non-surgical management, and support the decision to observe or re-intervene. HFUS can enhance clinical practice by providing useful information that cannot be deducted from the clinical examination. It would be recommended to evaluate the extent, mainly depth, and detect the aggressiveness of the BCCs.

PMID:35026769 | DOI:10.1159/000520751

Категории: MedLine

Recent advances on cutaneous lymphoma epidemiology

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Presse Med. 2022 Jan 10:104108. doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2022.104108. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a group of T- (CTCL) and B-cell (CBCL) malignancies. These diseases have different clinical presentations and prognosis. Our knowledge on their epidemiology is limited. Aim of this review was to summarise recent findings on the incidence of CTCL and CBCL, how they change over time, and to describe possible causes and consequences. We found that although there are important differences in the epidemiology of cutaneous lymphomas in different countries, the relative frequency of certain, especially rare lymphomas remains stable. Several studies described growing incidences of both CTCL and CBCL. The emergence of new diagnostic criteria, a more precise definition of the entities and new biomarkers enable a better classification of cases.

PMID:35026392 | DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2022.104108

Категории: MedLine

New biotherapies for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Presse Med. 2022 Jan 10:104110. doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2022.104110. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Most cutaneous lymphomas are cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, and the most common form is mycosis fungoides. Sézary syndrome is a leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which is characterized by erythroderma and the presence of blood tumor cells. The only potential cure of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas remains allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, monoclonal antibodies have led to a substantial progress in the treatment of advanced-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Some of them, such as mogamulizumab (anti-CCR4 monoclobal antibody) or brentuximab vedotin (anti-CD30 coupled to monomethylauristatin E, antibody drug conjugate) have shown efficacy in international randomized controlled studies. Lacutamab, an anti-KIR3DL2 monoclonal antibody, is currently tested in an international, prospective phase 2 trial in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Finally, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown clinical benefit in open-label phase 2 studies in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. This review focuses on the new biotherapies currently used in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

PMID:35026391 | DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2022.104110

Категории: MedLine

CUTANEOUS B-CELL LYMPHOMAS: UPDATE ON DIAGNOSIS, RISK-STRATIFICATION, AND MANAGEMENT

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Presse Med. 2022 Jan 10:104109. doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2022.104109. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PCBCLs are a group of Non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas originating in and usually confined to the skin, representing approximately one fourth of primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCL). Their current classification system has been the result of the joint World Health Organization (WHO) - European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) consensus in 2018. To date, several types of PCBCLs have been described in the scientific literature, with different clinical presentation and prognosis. Primary cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma (PCFCL) and primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (PCMZL) are the most common forms, with a typical indolent course. On the contrary, primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL, LT) is less common, yet more aggressive, with a reported 5-year overall survival of approximatively 50%. In this review, we outline the PCBCLs defining diagnostic criteria, report the features of the less common subtypes and summarize the noteworthy therapeutical options currently available in this field.

PMID:35026390 | DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2022.104109

Категории: MedLine

Institutional Adherence to Current Mohs Surgery Appropriate Use Criteria With Reasons for Nonadherence and Recommendations for Future Versions

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Dermatol Surg. 2022 Jan 11. doi: 10.1097/DSS.0000000000003369. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The appropriate use criteria (AUC) were established to optimize the use of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) and confer the highest possible clinical benefit to the patient.

OBJECTIVE: We documented our adherence to AUC and review reasons for nonadherence regarding lesions classified as inappropriate, in the hopes of informing future versions of the AUC.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 1,000 consecutive patients who underwent MMS at a single institution. A total of 1,318 biopsy-proven nonmelanoma skin cancers were treated with MMS, and each skin cancer that underwent MMS was classified as appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate based on the AUC.

RESULTS: Data were collected on 1,318 lesions with 1,237 (93.9%) categorized as appropriate, 59 (4.5%) uncertain, and 22 (1.7%) not appropriate. The primary variables that determined appropriateness were type of cancer (p = .001), size (p < .001), and area of body (p < .001).

CONCLUSION: Institutional adherence to AUC was high, with 93.9% of treated tumors classified as appropriate, 4.5% as uncertain and 1.7% as inappropriate. By far the most commonly reported reason for performing MMS on an inappropriate lesion in our review was the treatment of adjacent lesions in 1 session.

PMID:35025848 | DOI:10.1097/DSS.0000000000003369

Категории: MedLine

Emerging Roles of Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis in Obesity

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

JID Innov. 2021 Oct 13;2(1):100064. doi: 10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100064. eCollection 2022 Jan.

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a growing epidemic worldwide, and it is also considered a major environmental factor contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis (PSO) and atopic dermatitis (AD). Moreover, obesity worsens the course and impairs the treatment response of these inflammatory skin diseases. Emerging evidence highlights that hypertrophied adipocytes and infiltrated immune cells secrete a variety of molecules, including fatty acids and adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, and a panel of cytokines/chemokines that modulate our immune system. In this review, we describe how adipose hypertrophy leads to a chronic low-grade inflammatory state in obesity and how obesity-related inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of PSO and/or AD. Finally, we discuss the potential role of antimicrobial peptides, mechanical stress and impairment of epidermal barrier function mediated by fast expansion, and dermal fat in modulating skin inflammation. Together, this review summarizes the current literature on how obesity is associated with the pathogenesis of PSO and AD, highlighting the potentially important but overlooked immunomodulatory role of adipose tissue in the skin.

PMID:35024685 | PMC:PMC8659781 | DOI:10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100064

Категории: MedLine

T-Cell Adhesion in Healthy and Inflamed Skin

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

JID Innov. 2021 Apr 30;1(2):100014. doi: 10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100014. eCollection 2021 Jun.

ABSTRACT

The diverse populations of tissue-resident and transitory T cells present in the skin share a common functional need to enter, traverse, and interact with their environment. These processes are largely dependent on the regulated expression of adhesion molecules, such as selectins and integrins, which mediate bidirectional interactions between immune cells and skin stroma. Dysregulation and engagement of adhesion pathways contribute to ectopic T-cell activity in tissues, leading to the initiation and/or exacerbation of chronic inflammation. In this paper, we review how the molecular interactions supported by adhesion pathways contribute to T-cell dynamics and function in the skin. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning T-cell adhesion in inflammatory skin disorders will facilitate the development of novel tissue-specific therapeutic strategies.

PMID:35024681 | PMC:PMC8669513 | DOI:10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100014

Категории: MedLine

Dermoscopy for cutaneous fungal infections: A brief review

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Health Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 6;5(1):e464. doi: 10.1002/hsr2.464. eCollection 2022 Mar.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fungal dermatological diseases are significant public health issues. Dermoscopy is a useful bedside assessment tool that helps clinicians diagnose various skin neoplasms and general dermatological diseases.

AIM: This brief review aims to update clinicians on the dermoscopic features of cutaneous fungal infections such as tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea incognito, onychomycosis, and pityrosporum folliculitis.

METHODS: The PubMed database was searched using the terms "dermoscopy" or its synonyms, "tinea capitis", "tinea corporis", "tinea incognito", "onychomycosis" and "pityrosporum folliculitis".

RESULTS: The diagnostic value of dermoscopy is well-recognised in the evaluation of tinea capitis and onychomycosis. There are fewer studies investigating the dermoscopic features of tinea corporis, tinea incognito and pityrosporum folliculitis, but the current data suggest that dermoscopy can aid clinical evaluation of these diseases. Understanding dermoscopic features of cutaneous fungal infection has the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy.

CONCLUSION: Dermoscopy in the evaluation of fungal dermatological diseases has the potential to optimize diagnostic accuracy, reduce unnecessary testing, and, consequently, improve clinical practice.

PMID:35024456 | PMC:PMC8733849 | DOI:10.1002/hsr2.464

Категории: MedLine

The role of long non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Mol Ther Oncolytics. 2021 Dec 6;24:127-138. doi: 10.1016/j.omto.2021.12.001. eCollection 2022 Mar 17.

ABSTRACT

Head and neck cancers are a heterogeneous collection of malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, salivary glands, and thyroid. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) remain poorly understood. Over the past decades, overwhelming evidence has demonstrated the regulatory roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis, including HNSCC. Notably, these lncRNAs have vital roles in gene regulation and affect various aspects of cellular homeostasis, including proliferation, survival, and metastasis. They exert regulating functions by interacting with nucleic acids or proteins and affecting cancer cell signaling. LncRNAs represent a burgeoning field of cancer research, and we are only beginning to understand the importance and complicity of lncRNAs in HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the deregulation and function of lncRNAs in human HNSCC. We also review the working mechanism of lncRNAs in HNSCC pathogenesis and discuss the potential application of lncRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic tools and therapeutic targets in human HNSCC.

PMID:35024439 | PMC:PMC8717422 | DOI:10.1016/j.omto.2021.12.001

Категории: MedLine

Cutaneous signs of nutritional disorders

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 22;7(5Part A):647-652. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.003. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

This review article focuses on the dermatologic manifestations of selected nutrient deficiencies, including protein-energy and micronutrient-related malnutrition. The various nutrient deficiencies presented may share common features. However, distinctive cutaneous signs may prompt clinicians to consider a nutritional cause and help distinguish a nutrient deficiency from other common dermatologic conditions. The recent reemergence of forgotten nutritional deficiencies, such as scurvy and pellagra, in the context of predisposing risk factors that may uniquely affect women more than men makes this topic timely. Recognition of nutritional disorders is important because appropriate treatment may reverse cutaneous signs and prevent irreversible sequelae.

PMID:35024418 | PMC:PMC8721081 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.003

Категории: MedLine

Targeted treatment of vascular anomalies

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Nov 2;7(5Part A):636-639. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.014. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Vascular anomalies comprise an array of congenital developmental disorders that can lead to significant disfigurement and physiologic disarray. The vast multitude of clinical phenotypes has inherently led to misdiagnosis and patients and families enduring long diagnostic odysseys of medical care. Although the observed variation in disease manifestations remains poorly understood, targeted next-generation sequencing has pivoted our understanding of the pathobiology of vascular anomalies and, for the first time, uncovered potential pharmacologic targets for these disorders. In this review article, we highlight current and developing targeted therapies for vascular anomalies, namely phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors, and discuss the future directions of targeted therapies.

PMID:35024417 | PMC:PMC8721128 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.014

Категории: MedLine

Cutaneous toxicities from targeted therapies used in oncology: Literature review of clinical presentation and management

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 28;7(5Part A):615-624. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.009. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

With the development of molecular targeted therapies, a wide array of dermatologic toxicities is appearing. Their prevention, recognition, and management by dermatologists is critical to ensure antineoplastic treatment continuation. The objective of this study was to provide a literature review of the most common dermatologic toxicities due to targeted therapies in oncologic patients, including their clinical presentation, prevention, and management.

PMID:35024416 | PMC:PMC8721134 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.009

Категории: MedLine

Novel systemic treatments in atopic dermatitis: Are there sex differences?

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Oct 12;7(5Part A):606-614. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.002. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with a significant global disease burden. Several mechanisms underlie AD, such as epidermal barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation, which have led to innovative systemic treatment options. Other inflammatory disorders, as well as innate and adaptive immune responses, have noted sex differences, but our article highlights a paucity of data on the impact of sex, gender, and gender identity on the pathophysiology and systemic treatments of AD.

PMID:35024415 | PMC:PMC8721130 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.002

Категории: MedLine

Livedoid vasculopathy: A multidisciplinary clinical approach to diagnosis and management

Обзоры @ Pubmed - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 2;7(5Part A):588-599. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.013. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is a rare, chronic, and occlusive disease of the veins supplying the upper parts of the skin. The pathogenesis of the disease is not precisely understood, and its attacks are often unpredictable but tend to worsen during the summer. LV affects women more often. This increased risk for LV in women might be related to sex-specific physiological conditions, such as pregnancy, or a higher incidence of LV-associated conditions, such as connective tissue diseases, hypercoagulable states, and venous stasis in women. The typical clinical appearance of LV consists of three main findings: livedo racemose, atrophie blanche, and skin ulcers. The purpose of this comprehensive review was to analyze LV in all aspects and mainly focus on early diagnosis for successful clinical management with a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. A detailed history, dermatological examination, and laboratory testing are essential for a diagnosis of LV. When LV is clinically suspected, a skin biopsy should be taken to confirm the diagnosis. Another critical step is to investigate the underlying associated conditions, such as connective tissue diseases, hypercoagulable states, thrombophilia, and malignancy. Unfortunately, no associated conditions can be detected in approximately 20% of all cases (idiopathic LV) despite all efforts. The diagnosis of the disease is delayed in most patients. Thus, irreversible, permanent scars appear. Early and appropriate treatment reduces pain and prevents the development of scars and other complications. Antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants can be preferred as the first-line treatments along with general supportive measures. Other therapeutic options might be considered in unresponsive cases. Preference for refractory cases is based on availability, clinical experience, and patient-related factors (comorbidities, age, sex, and compliance). These include anabolic steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, psoralen-ultraviolet A, vasodilators, fibrinolytics, immunomodulators, and immunosuppressives.

PMID:35024414 | PMC:PMC8721056 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.013

Категории: MedLine
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