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The role of long non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Mol Ther Oncolytics. 2021 Dec 6;24:127-138. doi: 10.1016/j.omto.2021.12.001. eCollection 2022 Mar 17.

ABSTRACT

Head and neck cancers are a heterogeneous collection of malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, salivary glands, and thyroid. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) remain poorly understood. Over the past decades, overwhelming evidence has demonstrated the regulatory roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis, including HNSCC. Notably, these lncRNAs have vital roles in gene regulation and affect various aspects of cellular homeostasis, including proliferation, survival, and metastasis. They exert regulating functions by interacting with nucleic acids or proteins and affecting cancer cell signaling. LncRNAs represent a burgeoning field of cancer research, and we are only beginning to understand the importance and complicity of lncRNAs in HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the deregulation and function of lncRNAs in human HNSCC. We also review the working mechanism of lncRNAs in HNSCC pathogenesis and discuss the potential application of lncRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic tools and therapeutic targets in human HNSCC.

PMID:35024439 | PMC:PMC8717422 | DOI:10.1016/j.omto.2021.12.001

Категории: MedLine

Cutaneous signs of nutritional disorders

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 22;7(5Part A):647-652. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.003. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

This review article focuses on the dermatologic manifestations of selected nutrient deficiencies, including protein-energy and micronutrient-related malnutrition. The various nutrient deficiencies presented may share common features. However, distinctive cutaneous signs may prompt clinicians to consider a nutritional cause and help distinguish a nutrient deficiency from other common dermatologic conditions. The recent reemergence of forgotten nutritional deficiencies, such as scurvy and pellagra, in the context of predisposing risk factors that may uniquely affect women more than men makes this topic timely. Recognition of nutritional disorders is important because appropriate treatment may reverse cutaneous signs and prevent irreversible sequelae.

PMID:35024418 | PMC:PMC8721081 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.003

Категории: MedLine

Targeted treatment of vascular anomalies

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Nov 2;7(5Part A):636-639. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.014. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Vascular anomalies comprise an array of congenital developmental disorders that can lead to significant disfigurement and physiologic disarray. The vast multitude of clinical phenotypes has inherently led to misdiagnosis and patients and families enduring long diagnostic odysseys of medical care. Although the observed variation in disease manifestations remains poorly understood, targeted next-generation sequencing has pivoted our understanding of the pathobiology of vascular anomalies and, for the first time, uncovered potential pharmacologic targets for these disorders. In this review article, we highlight current and developing targeted therapies for vascular anomalies, namely phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors, and discuss the future directions of targeted therapies.

PMID:35024417 | PMC:PMC8721128 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.014

Категории: MedLine

Cutaneous toxicities from targeted therapies used in oncology: Literature review of clinical presentation and management

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 28;7(5Part A):615-624. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.009. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

With the development of molecular targeted therapies, a wide array of dermatologic toxicities is appearing. Their prevention, recognition, and management by dermatologists is critical to ensure antineoplastic treatment continuation. The objective of this study was to provide a literature review of the most common dermatologic toxicities due to targeted therapies in oncologic patients, including their clinical presentation, prevention, and management.

PMID:35024416 | PMC:PMC8721134 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.009

Категории: MedLine

Novel systemic treatments in atopic dermatitis: Are there sex differences?

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Oct 12;7(5Part A):606-614. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.002. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with a significant global disease burden. Several mechanisms underlie AD, such as epidermal barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation, which have led to innovative systemic treatment options. Other inflammatory disorders, as well as innate and adaptive immune responses, have noted sex differences, but our article highlights a paucity of data on the impact of sex, gender, and gender identity on the pathophysiology and systemic treatments of AD.

PMID:35024415 | PMC:PMC8721130 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.002

Категории: MedLine

Livedoid vasculopathy: A multidisciplinary clinical approach to diagnosis and management

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 2;7(5Part A):588-599. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.013. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is a rare, chronic, and occlusive disease of the veins supplying the upper parts of the skin. The pathogenesis of the disease is not precisely understood, and its attacks are often unpredictable but tend to worsen during the summer. LV affects women more often. This increased risk for LV in women might be related to sex-specific physiological conditions, such as pregnancy, or a higher incidence of LV-associated conditions, such as connective tissue diseases, hypercoagulable states, and venous stasis in women. The typical clinical appearance of LV consists of three main findings: livedo racemose, atrophie blanche, and skin ulcers. The purpose of this comprehensive review was to analyze LV in all aspects and mainly focus on early diagnosis for successful clinical management with a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. A detailed history, dermatological examination, and laboratory testing are essential for a diagnosis of LV. When LV is clinically suspected, a skin biopsy should be taken to confirm the diagnosis. Another critical step is to investigate the underlying associated conditions, such as connective tissue diseases, hypercoagulable states, thrombophilia, and malignancy. Unfortunately, no associated conditions can be detected in approximately 20% of all cases (idiopathic LV) despite all efforts. The diagnosis of the disease is delayed in most patients. Thus, irreversible, permanent scars appear. Early and appropriate treatment reduces pain and prevents the development of scars and other complications. Antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants can be preferred as the first-line treatments along with general supportive measures. Other therapeutic options might be considered in unresponsive cases. Preference for refractory cases is based on availability, clinical experience, and patient-related factors (comorbidities, age, sex, and compliance). These include anabolic steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, psoralen-ultraviolet A, vasodilators, fibrinolytics, immunomodulators, and immunosuppressives.

PMID:35024414 | PMC:PMC8721056 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.013

Категории: MedLine

Assessment and management of the heightened risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with lupus erythematosus or dermatomyositis

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 9;7(5Part A):560-575. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.015. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

For patients with lupus erythematosus (LE) or dermatomyositis (DM), there is an urgent need to address a heightened risk of clinical events, chiefly heart attacks and strokes, caused by atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Patients with LE or DM frequently exhibit high levels of conventional risk factors for ASCVD events, particularly dyslipoproteinemia and hypertension; an amplified burden of atherosclerotic plaques; and increased age- and sex-adjusted rates of ASCVD events compared with the general population. The rate of ASCVD events exceeds what would be expected from conventional risk factors, suggesting that disease-specific autoimmune processes exacerbate specific, known pathogenic steps in atherosclerosis. Importantly, despite their heightened risk, patients with LE or DM are often undertreated for known causative agents and exacerbators of ASCVD. Herein, we propose an approach to assess and manage the heightened risk of ASCVD events in patients with LE or DM. Our approach is modeled in large part on established approaches to patients with diabetes mellitus or stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease, which are well-studied conditions that also show heightened risk for ASCVD events and have been explicitly incorporated into standard clinical guidelines for ASCVD. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that patients with LE or DM require earlier and more aggressive screening and management of ASCVD. We suggest that physicians consider implementing multipliers of conventional risk calculators to trigger earlier initiation of lifestyle modifications and medical therapies in primary prevention of ASCVD events, employ vascular imaging to quantify the burden of subclinical plaques, and treat to lower lipid targets using statins and newer therapies, such as PCSK9 inhibitors, that decrease ASCVD events in nonautoimmune cohorts. More clinical vigilance is needed regarding surveillance, prevention, risk modification, and treatment of dyslipidemias, hypertension, and smoking in patients with LE or DM. All of these goals are achievable.

PMID:35024413 | PMC:PMC8721062 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.015

Категории: MedLine

Corticosteroid use in chronic dermatologic disorders and osteoporosis

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Aug 15;7(5Part A):545-551. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.07.014. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a frequently encountered and serious side effect of glucocorticoid use. Bone loss leading to an increased risk for fracture occurs early in the use of glucocorticoids, yet patients at risk for this complication are often undertreated. All physicians prescribing glucocorticoids should therefore be familiar with a basic approach to anticipating and preventing GIOP when starting patients on glucocorticoid therapy. This manuscript and its case vignettes are designed to help dermatologists assess and manage bone health to prevent GIOP in patients receiving glucocorticoid therapy.

PMID:35024411 | PMC:PMC8721058 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.07.014

Категории: MedLine

Cutaneous mosaicism: Special considerations for women

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Oct 27;7(5Part A):539-544. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.004. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Genetic mosaicism results from postzygotic mutations during embryogenesis. Cells harboring pathogenic mutations distribute throughout the developing embryo and can cause clinical disease in the tissues they populate. Cutaneous mosaicism is readily visualized since affected tissue often follows predetermined patterns, such as lines of Blaschko. Due to its clinical accessibility, cutaneous mosaicism is well suited for genetic analysis. An individual's unaffected tissue can be used as an intrapatient genetic control, a technique that has yielded insight into the genetic etiologies of many disorders, several of which bear mutations in genes that would otherwise be embryonic-lethal. Particular mosaic diseases can also disproportionally impact women. Two such diseases, incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects (CHILD) syndrome, arise from mutations on the X chromosome. Both diseases result in fetal demise in males in most cases, thus making the two diseases largely specific to women. Women with McCune-Albright Syndrome, caused by somatic mutations in GNAS, often experience precocious puberty and infertility as a result of uncontrolled cAMP regulation in affected tissue. Women with cutaneous mosaicism carry a risk of transmission to offspring when gonosomal mosaicism is present, yet cutaneous disease burden does not correlate with germline transmission risk. Cutaneous mosaic disease represents a biologically unique set of disorders that can warrant special clinical attention in women.

PMID:35024410 | PMC:PMC8721131 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.10.004

Категории: MedLine

Vulvovaginal and ocular involvement and treatment in female patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A review

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 2;7(5Part A):520-528. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.012. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are serious adverse cutaneous drug reactions, characterized by epidermal detachment and mucous membrane involvement. SJS/TEN is more common in female patients, with unique findings in the ocular and vulvar regions. Early recognition and intervention, as well as long-term follow-up, are crucial to prevent devastating scarring and sequelae. This review examines the vulvar and ocular manifestations of SJS/TEN and describes the current treatment recommendations for female patients, requiring close consultation and collaboration among dermatology, ophthalmology, and gynecology.

PMID:35024409 | PMC:PMC8721055 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.08.012

Категории: MedLine

Effect of Cognitive Behavior Oriented Psychological Intervention on the Psychological Status of Depressed Facial Acne Scar Patients Undergoing Fractional Photothermolysis

Публикации по акне - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

J Craniofac Surg. 2022 Jan 12. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008448. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of cognitive behavior oriented psychological intervention on the psychological status of depressed facial acne scar patients receiving fractional photothermolysis.

METHODS: The study enrolled 48 depressed facial acne scar patients who received treatment at our hospital between May 2018 and May 2021. They were randomized to the control group and the fractional photothermolysis group with 24 patients in each group using the random number table method. They received nursing intervention and cognitive behavior-oriented psychological intervention, respectively.

RESULTS: The Hamilton Anxiety and Hamilton Depression scores were lower after intervention than before intervention in both groups, and the fractional photothermolysis group had lower Hamilton Anxiety and Hamilton Depression scores than the control group (P < 0.05). The interpersonal sensitivity had hostility and phobic anxiety scores were lower after 12 weeks of treatment than before intervention in both groups, and the fractional photothermolysis group had lower interpersonal sensitivity hostility and phobic anxiety scores than the control group (P < 0.05). The H, M, V, and P scores after 12 weeks of intervention were both lower in the 2 groups than those before intervention. The humanistic care quality of service nursing care and health education scores were lower after intervention before intervention in both groups and the fractional photothermolysis group had significantly lower humanistic care quality of service nursing care and health education scores than the control group (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive behavior-oriented psychological intervention can effectively improve the psychological status and psychological health of depressed facial acne scar patients receiving fractional photothermolysis.

PMID:35025824 | DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000008448

Категории: MedLine, Специальные

Prescribing Pattern of Dermatological Compounding in Ethiopia: The Case of ALERT Hospital

Публикации по акне - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2022 Jan 6;11:1-8. doi: 10.2147/IPRP.S346395. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Skin diseases are among the major contributors of disease burden in Ethiopia affecting individuals of all age. Extemporaneous compounding of topical medications serves as a necessary option to treat skin diseases when manufactured medications could not meet specific patient needs. Different classes of drugs are commonly used for the treatment of dermatologic diseases. Failure to periodically assess the prescribing pattern and patient needs may lead to inappropriate planning and implementation that ultimately compromise the service. Periodic prescription analysis for compounded medications helps to monitor the prescription pattern with respect to medication selection, disease condition, dosage form types and other relevant parameters. The current study was conducted to analyze the pattern of compounding prescriptions for dermatologicals in ALERT hospital.

METHODS: A cross-sectional design was conducted by retrospectively evaluating compounding prescription records of January and July, 2021. A total of 460 prescriptions in the hospital community pharmacy were systematically selected. Data related to disease pattern, product selection and dosage form type were extracted and analyzed. Data analysis was done using software for the statistical package for social science version 25.0.

RESULTS: A total of 441 prescriptions containing dermatological products for compounding were analyzed. Most patients were female (62.8%) and aged 30-64 years (44.0%). Psoriasis (36.2%), acne vulgaris (15.3%), and rosacea (13.4%) were the top 3 skin diseases for which the compounding preparations were prescribed. Salicylic acid (38.0%) was the most frequently prescribed drug followed by betamethasone (20.2%); while white petrolatum (47.2%) was the most common diluting agent used for compounding.

CONCLUSION: Psoriasis was the major dermatologic disease for compounding prescriptions and salicylic acid was the most frequent product used in compounding for treatment of the prescribed skin diseases.

PMID:35024353 | PMC:PMC8747791 | DOI:10.2147/IPRP.S346395

Категории: MedLine, Специальные

High-frequency ultrasound: an essential non-invasive tool for the pre-therapeutic assessment of basal cell carcinoma

Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2021 Apr-Jun;62(2):545-551. doi: 10.47162/RJME.62.2.21.

ABSTRACT

AIM: While histology remains the "gold standard" for cutaneous tumoral pathology, high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) was shown to play a significant role in the non-invasive, pre-therapeutic assessment of skin tumors. The aim of our study was to determine whether there is a significant correlation between the ultrasound (US) and histological measurements of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumor depth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study retrospectively analyzed clinical, dermoscopy, HFUS and histological examinations of 90 patients (52 men and 38 women) with histologically confirmed BCC, with focus on tumor depth index (DI).

RESULTS: On clinical examination, 54 lesions were nodular (32 presented ulcerations) and 36 superficial lesions. Dermoscopy showed suggestive signs of BCC, most frequently "in focus" arborising superficial vessels (n=81), blue-grey ovoid nests (n=48) and specks of brown pigment (n=7). HFUS revealed well-defined (n=88) or poorly defined (n=2) hypoechoic, vascularized lesions, with inhomogeneous structure (n=90) and characteristic hyperechoic dots (n=36). A strong correlation (Pearson's r=0.92) between the HFUS (mean measured US depth = 1.33 mm) and histological (mean measured histological depth = 1.47 mm) DI of the investigated skin lesions was found, although significant differences (p<0.001 - t-test for paired samples) between the two measurements were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: HFUS provides reliable information about BCC depth of invasion that cannot be otherwise obtained prior to surgery. In this manner, it completes the preclinical evaluation and can have an impact on the choice of the optimal therapeutic method.

PMID:35024743 | DOI:10.47162/RJME.62.2.21

Категории: Специальные

Dermoscopy for cutaneous fungal infections: A brief review

Health Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 6;5(1):e464. doi: 10.1002/hsr2.464. eCollection 2022 Mar.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fungal dermatological diseases are significant public health issues. Dermoscopy is a useful bedside assessment tool that helps clinicians diagnose various skin neoplasms and general dermatological diseases.

AIM: This brief review aims to update clinicians on the dermoscopic features of cutaneous fungal infections such as tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea incognito, onychomycosis, and pityrosporum folliculitis.

METHODS: The PubMed database was searched using the terms "dermoscopy" or its synonyms, "tinea capitis", "tinea corporis", "tinea incognito", "onychomycosis" and "pityrosporum folliculitis".

RESULTS: The diagnostic value of dermoscopy is well-recognised in the evaluation of tinea capitis and onychomycosis. There are fewer studies investigating the dermoscopic features of tinea corporis, tinea incognito and pityrosporum folliculitis, but the current data suggest that dermoscopy can aid clinical evaluation of these diseases. Understanding dermoscopic features of cutaneous fungal infection has the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy.

CONCLUSION: Dermoscopy in the evaluation of fungal dermatological diseases has the potential to optimize diagnostic accuracy, reduce unnecessary testing, and, consequently, improve clinical practice.

PMID:35024456 | PMC:PMC8733849 | DOI:10.1002/hsr2.464

Категории: Специальные

Clinical, Dermoscopic, and Histopathologic Aspects of Amelanotic Lentigo Maligna Melanoma

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021137. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a137. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024235 | PMC:PMC8648433 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a137

Категории: Специальные

Dermoscopy as a Useful Tool in Differentiation of Genital Lesions: Lichen Sclerosus

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021133. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a133. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024233 | PMC:PMC8648431 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a133

Категории: Специальные

Annular Atrophic Lichen Planus: A Case Report

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021123. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a123. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024232 | PMC:PMC8648430 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a123

Категории: Специальные

Congenital Melanotic Macule of the Tongue: A Five-Year Follow-Up

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021122. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a122. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024231 | PMC:PMC8648429 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a122

Категории: Специальные

Prurigo Pigmentosa: Dermoscopic Evaluation

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021115. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a115. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024228 | PMC:PMC8648426 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a115

Категории: Специальные

Clonal Seborrheic keratosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2021 Oct 1;11(4):e2021095. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1104a95. eCollection 2021 Oct.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35024223 | PMC:PMC8648421 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1104a95

Категории: Специальные
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