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Herbal Therapy for the Management of Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Narrative Review

Обзоры @ Pubmed - пт., 14/01/2022 - 14:00

Recent Adv Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2021;16(3):209-226. doi: 10.2174/2772434416666211029113213.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Dandruff and Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) are similar skin conditions with different degrees ofseverity. Since the current therapies cannot remove dandruff efficiently, herbal extracts with better effectiveness and fewer side effects are used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Due to the adverse effects of chemical drugs, the use of natural products and traditional medicine has significantly increased over the past few decades. Therefore, in this review, we reported the herbs used as anti-dandruff agents in traditional medicine worldwide.

METHODS: The review was conducted on the literature available on the medicinal utility of certain plants as anti-dandruff agents using PubMed and Google Scholar and the following search terms: Dandruff and plants or medicinal plant and dandruff treatment, and essential oil and dandruff.

RESULTS: Since the current therapies cannotefficiently remove dandruff, herbal extracts with better effectiveness and fewer side effects are used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Nowadays, there are numerous different types of herbal antidandruff shampoos. They are effective and safe without the side effects of chemical agents. Recently, herbal medicine has attracted a great deal of scientific attention. Clinical evidence on the therapeutic effects of herbal products has resulted in the study of far more herbs for their therapeutic roles.

CONCLUSION: Herbal therapy plays a significant role in the development of favorable therapeutics, either alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics. However, the major challenges in this regard include finding compounds with satisfactorily lower MICs, low toxicity, and high bioavailability for effective and safe use in humans and animals.

PMID:35026970 | DOI:10.2174/2772434416666211029113213

Категории: MedLine

Whole-Exome Sequencing in 10 Unrelated Patients with Syndromic Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Preliminary Step for a Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

Dermatology (Karger) - пт., 14/01/2022 - 10:26
Background: The genetics of syndromic hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), an immune-mediated condition associated with systemic comorbidities such as inflammatory bowel diseases and arthritis, has not been completely elucidated. Objective: To describe clinical features and genetic signature of patients with the main syndromic HS forms, i.e., PASH, PAPASH, and PASH/SAPHO overlapping. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) approach was performed in ten patients with syndromic HS. Results: Three clinical settings have been identified based on presence/absence of gut and joint inflammation. Four PASH patients who had also gut inflammation showed three different variants in NOD2 gene, two variants in OTULIN, and a variant in GJB2, respectively. Three PAPASH and three PASH/SAPHO overlapping patients who had also joint inflammation showed two different variants in NCSTN, one in WDR1 and PSTPIP1, and two variants in NLRC4, one of whom was present in a patient with a mixed phenotype characterized by gut and joint inflammation. Limitations: Limited number of patients that can be counterbalanced by the rarity of syndromic HS. Conclusion: Syndromic HS can be considered as a polygenic autoinflammatory condition; currently WES is a diagnostic tool allowing more accurate genotype-phenotype correlation.
Dermatology
Категории: Журналы

Novel CD63‐PRKCB fusion in a case of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma

Pediatric Dermatology - пт., 14/01/2022 - 09:23
Abstract

Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is an intermediate-grade melanocytic tumor with considerable histologic overlap with other melanocytic neoplasms such as epithelioid blue nevus (EBN), which is associated with the neoplastic syndrome Carney complex (CC). Next-generation sequencing is a valuable tool for identifying the primary drivers of melanocytic neoplasms and differentiating them from one another. While germline variants in the protein kinase cAMP-dependent regulatory type 1 alpha (PRKAR1A) gene have been associated with EBN and CC, fusions in protein kinase C-alpha (PRKCA) have been shown as sporadic drivers of PEM. Herein, we report the diagnosis and workup of a case of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma with a novel protein kinase C-beta (PRKCB) fusion.

Категории: Журналы

Epidemiologic features and risk of scarring in pediatric patients with kerion celsi

Pediatric Dermatology - пт., 14/01/2022 - 09:13
Abstract Background

Kerion celsi represents the inflammatory extreme of tinea capitis, as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the causative dermatophyte. Data regarding prevalence, trends in pathogens, and risk factors for scarring are limited.

Objective

The main objective of the study is to assess clinical and epidemiologic features of children with kerion celsi and risk factors for scarring.

Methods

We reviewed medical records of pediatric patients with kerion celsi treated between January 2006 and July 2020.

Results

Among 80 patients, the prevalence of permanent alopecia was 27.5%. Patients with remaining alopecia presented to our clinic at a mean 1.3 months earlier than those with complete response to treatment (2.2 ± 2.1 and 3.4 ± 4.8, respectively; p < .05). Patients of Ethiopian ethnicity were more represented than in the general population; however, scarring was observed in only 11% (p = 0.08). Outcomes did not differ by pathogen, antifungal treatment prescribed, duration of treatment, or the use of prednisone or antibiotics.

Conclusions

Scarring alopecia is a common complication of kerion celsi. Host innate immune response, pathogen virulence, and treatment timeline should be considered as possible variables affecting risk of scarring in the future studies.

Категории: Журналы

Enlarging facial tumor in a teenager

Pediatric Dermatology - пт., 14/01/2022 - 09:09
Pediatric Dermatology, EarlyView.
Категории: Журналы

Safety of tacrolimus 0.03% and 0.1% ointments in young children with atopic dermatitis: a 36‐month follow‐up study

Clin Exp Dermatol - пт., 14/01/2022 - 08:43
 a 36-month follow-up study

In our prospective clinical study with 152 young children aged 1–3 years, tacrolimus 0.03% and 0.1% ointments and mild- and moderate-potency topical corticosteroids were effective and showed similar safety profiles in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.


Summary Background

Topical tacrolimus is used off-label in young children, but data are limited on its use in children under 2 years of age and for long-term treatment.

Aim

To compare safety differences between topical tacrolimus (0.03% and 0.1% ointments) and topical corticosteroids (mild and moderate potency) in young children with atopic dermatitis (AD).

Methods

We conducted a 36-month follow-up study with 152 young children aged 1–3 years with moderate to severe AD. The children were followed up prospectively, and data were collected on infections, disease severity, growth parameters, vaccination responses and other relevant laboratory tests were gathered.

Results

There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for skin-related infections (SRIs) (P = 0.20), non-SRIs (P = 0.20), growth parameters height (P = 0.60), body weight (P = 0.81), Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) (P = 0.19), vaccination responses (P = 0.62), serum cortisone levels (P = 0.23) or serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-31 and interferon-γ. EASI decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.001). In the tacrolimus group, nine patients (11.68%) had detectable tacrolimus blood concentrations at the 1-week visit. There were no malignancies or severe infections during the study, and blood eosinophil counts were similar in both groups.

Conclusions

Topical tacrolimus (0.03% and 0.1%) and topical corticosteroids (mild and moderate potency) are safe to use in young children with moderate to severe AD, and have comparable efficacy and safety profiles.

Категории: Журналы

FOCUS THEME ISSUE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Dysbiosis of nail microbiome in patients with psoriasis

Experimental Dermatology - пт., 14/01/2022 - 07:32
ABSTRACT

Shifts in skin microbiome are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, data on the microbial dysbiosis of nail psoriasis is scarce. In this study, we aim to investigate and characterize the nail bacterial and fungal microbiome in patients with psoriasis. Nail samples were collected prospectively from 36 subjects with nail psoriasis, 24 psoriatic subjects without nail involvement, and 32 healthy controls. Amplicon sequencing was performed to evaluate the bacterial and fungal community compositions. Significant alterations in the bacterial microbiome were found in the nail samples of psoriatic patients. The unaffected nails in psoriatic patients were associated with higher bacterial diversity, and a higher relative abundance of Enhydrobacter, whereas nail psoriasis was correlated with a decreased relative abundance of Anaerococcus. Shifts in fungal community composition was reflected by a higher proportion of Malassezia in the unaffected nails of psoriatic patients and an increased proportion of Candida in psoriatic nails. Shifts in the nail microbiome in psoriasis suggest a potential role of microbes in the development of nail psoriasis. Future researches focusing on these microorganisms may help to explain the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Категории: Журналы

Topical timolol in dermatology: infantile haemangiomas and beyond

Clin Exp Dermatol - пт., 14/01/2022 - 07:24
Summary

Timolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker, is well-tolerated and is becoming increasingly popular in dermatology, especially in the management of infantile haemangioma (IH). Its effects are mainly due to vasoconstriction, inhibition of angiogenesis and keratinocyte migration promotion for re-epithelialization and wound healing. We review the evidence behind the use of timolol in several dermatological conditions including IH, pyogenic granulomas, Kaposi sarcoma, chronic wound healing, postsurgical wounds, acne vulgaris, rosacea, eczema and red scrotum syndrome.

Категории: Журналы

Unusual Occurrence Of Nail Lichen Planus In A Child And Response To Treatment

Dermatologic Therapy - чт., 13/01/2022 - 15:00
Dermatologic Therapy, Accepted Article.
Категории: Журналы

Performance of Ultrasound for Identifying Morphological Characteristics and Thickness of Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review

Dermatology. 2022 Jan 13:1-19. doi: 10.1159/000520751. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Advances in ultrasound technology and non-surgical treatments of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have raised the need to study the performance of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) in BCCs. We aimed to assess the performance of HFUS in the evaluation of BCCs to formulate recommendations for its uses and conducted a systematic review of the literature to do so. A search of Central, Medline, Embase, CINHAL, and Web of Science was performed using key/MESH terms "ultrasonography" and "basal cell carcinoma" (January 2005-December 2020). We included primary studies reporting biopsy-confirmed BCCs for which the target intervention was ultrasound assessment at 15 MHz or higher frequency. Thirty articles were included, studying a total of 1,203 biopsy-confirmed BCCs. HFUS provides accurate depth measurements, especially for BCCs >1 mm. The definition of lateral margins in vivo needs further studies; however, ex vivo margin assessment seems convincing. There is a diagnostic role for HFUS in identifying higher recurrence risk BCC subtypes, which can help in risk stratification. Performance of HFUS is significant in BCC management. Pre-surgical scans may support case selection for Mohs. HFUS can improve safety when used to plan brachytherapy treatments, help with case selection and adjunct treatment choice pre-photodynamic therapy. Finally, HFUS can help follow lesions after intervention, particularly non-surgical management, and support the decision to observe or re-intervene. HFUS can enhance clinical practice by providing useful information that cannot be deducted from the clinical examination. It would be recommended to evaluate the extent, mainly depth, and detect the aggressiveness of the BCCs.

PMID:35026769 | DOI:10.1159/000520751

Категории: MedLine

RECON syndrome is a genome instability disorder caused by mutations in the DNA helicase RECQL1

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

J Clin Invest. 2022 Jan 13:e147301. doi: 10.1172/JCI147301. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Despite being the first homolog of the bacterial RecQ helicase to be identified in humans the function of RECQL1 remains poorly characterised. Furthermore, unlike other members of the human RECQ family of helicases, mutations in RECQL1 have not been associated with a genetic disease. Here we identify two families with a novel genome instability disorder, named RECON (RECql ONe) Syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in the RECQL gene. The affected individuals exhibit short stature, progeroid facial features, a hypoplastic nose, xeroderma and skin photosensitivity. Affected individuals were homozygous for the same missense mutation in RECQL1 (p.Ala459Ser) located within its zinc binding domain. Biochemical analysis of the mutant RECQL1 protein revealed that the p.A459S missense mutation compromised its ATPase, helicase and fork restoration activity, whilst its capacity to promote single-strand DNA annealing was largely unaffected. At the cellular level, this mutation in RECQL1 gave rise to a defect in the ability to repair DNA damage induced by exposure to topoisomerase poisons and a failure of DNA replication to progress efficiently in the presence of abortive topoisomerase lesions. Taken together, RECQL1 is the fourth member of the RecQ family of helicases to be associated with a human genome instability disorder.

PMID:35025765 | DOI:10.1172/JCI147301

Категории: MedLine

Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study of keratoacanthoma

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2021 Apr-Jun;62(2):445-456. doi: 10.47162/RJME.62.2.10.

ABSTRACT

Keratoacanthoma (KA) is an epithelial tumor of the skin, classically considered as having a malignant transformation risk of 15%; however, many authors and the new World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of skin tumors consider KA as an incipient variant of the cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aims of the study were to assess the clinical, histopathological (HP) and immunohistochemical (IHC) aspects of the KA and the role of these factors in malignancy occurrence. The studied group comprises 194 patients diagnosed with KA or malignant KA, hospitalized in the Clinic of Dermatology, Emergency County Hospital, Craiova, Romania, between 2006 and 2019. There were 83 males and 111 females, aged 34 to 90 years, 57.21% of the patients being from the rural environment. The histopathology diagnosed 51 KAs and 143 malignant KAs (SCCs). Clinical diagnosis had a limited value in detecting the absence or presence of malignancy in the KA lesion, due to a low accuracy (36.08% and 29.89%, respectively) and specificity (23.07% and 27.02%, respectively); therefore, the HP exam of the surgical excision specimen has a paramount importance in establishing the diagnosis. IHC analysis revealed that the immunostainings for apoptosis-associated proteins and keratinocyte proliferative activity [p53, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)] provide some arguments to differentiate between KA and SCC in the studied cases. The correlation of clinical, HP and IHC data lead to an accurate diagnosis of KA; moreover, the clinical, HP and IHC data sustain the idea that KA is a particular form of well-differentiated SCC, which require an active therapeutic attitude.

PMID:35024732 | DOI:10.47162/RJME.62.2.10

Категории: MedLine

Efficacy and Safety of a Hyaluronic Acid-Containing Cream in the Treatment of Chronic, Venous, or Mixed-Origin Leg Ulcers: A Prospective, Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

Pubmed free full-text with abstracts - чт., 13/01/2022 - 14:00

Wounds. 2021 Nov;33(11):285-295. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Topical applications of hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing formulations, based on the complex and vital role of HA in all stages of the wound-healing process, are routinely used with standard therapy to promote faster healing of chronic wounds. However, evidence to guide clinical decisions on the use of topical HA in the healing of vascular leg ulcers is limited.

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the efficacy and safety of topical application of a hyaluronic acid cream vs a neutral comparator (identical cream without HA) in treating subjects with chronic leg ulcers of vascular origin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial. One hundred sixty-eight subjects with chronic leg ulcers of venous or mixed (venous and arterial) origin were randomized to receive either topical applications of 0.2% HA cream or neutral comparator cream for a maximum of 20 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was complete ulcer healing (100% reepithelialization of the wound area centrally assessed at 20 weeks or before and confirmed 3 weeks later). In both groups, topical treatment was associated with standard therapy (ulcer cleansing and optimized compression).

RESULTS: The proportion of subjects with centrally assessed complete healing of the target ulcer that was confirmed 3 weeks later (primary efficacy endpoint) was substantially higher in the HA cream group (31.3%) than in the neutral cream group (14.8%; P =.009). Results in the full analysis, per protocol, and as assessed by the investigator were consistent with primary results. No significant difference in treatment effect was observed when subjects were stratified according to baseline ulcer size (≤20 cm2 or >20 cm2) regardless of topical treatment. Safety and tolerability were comparable between treatments.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of subjects with chronic leg ulcers of venous or mixed origin with HA cream is safe, well tolerated, and results in a higher rate of healing than a neutral comparator cream.

PMID:35025757

Категории: MedLine

Emerging Roles of Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis in Obesity

JID Innov. 2021 Oct 13;2(1):100064. doi: 10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100064. eCollection 2022 Jan.

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a growing epidemic worldwide, and it is also considered a major environmental factor contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis (PSO) and atopic dermatitis (AD). Moreover, obesity worsens the course and impairs the treatment response of these inflammatory skin diseases. Emerging evidence highlights that hypertrophied adipocytes and infiltrated immune cells secrete a variety of molecules, including fatty acids and adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, and a panel of cytokines/chemokines that modulate our immune system. In this review, we describe how adipose hypertrophy leads to a chronic low-grade inflammatory state in obesity and how obesity-related inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of PSO and/or AD. Finally, we discuss the potential role of antimicrobial peptides, mechanical stress and impairment of epidermal barrier function mediated by fast expansion, and dermal fat in modulating skin inflammation. Together, this review summarizes the current literature on how obesity is associated with the pathogenesis of PSO and AD, highlighting the potentially important but overlooked immunomodulatory role of adipose tissue in the skin.

PMID:35024685 | PMC:PMC8659781 | DOI:10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100064

Категории: MedLine

T-Cell Adhesion in Healthy and Inflamed Skin

JID Innov. 2021 Apr 30;1(2):100014. doi: 10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100014. eCollection 2021 Jun.

ABSTRACT

The diverse populations of tissue-resident and transitory T cells present in the skin share a common functional need to enter, traverse, and interact with their environment. These processes are largely dependent on the regulated expression of adhesion molecules, such as selectins and integrins, which mediate bidirectional interactions between immune cells and skin stroma. Dysregulation and engagement of adhesion pathways contribute to ectopic T-cell activity in tissues, leading to the initiation and/or exacerbation of chronic inflammation. In this paper, we review how the molecular interactions supported by adhesion pathways contribute to T-cell dynamics and function in the skin. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning T-cell adhesion in inflammatory skin disorders will facilitate the development of novel tissue-specific therapeutic strategies.

PMID:35024681 | PMC:PMC8669513 | DOI:10.1016/j.xjidi.2021.100014

Категории: MedLine

Dermoscopy for cutaneous fungal infections: A brief review

Health Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 6;5(1):e464. doi: 10.1002/hsr2.464. eCollection 2022 Mar.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fungal dermatological diseases are significant public health issues. Dermoscopy is a useful bedside assessment tool that helps clinicians diagnose various skin neoplasms and general dermatological diseases.

AIM: This brief review aims to update clinicians on the dermoscopic features of cutaneous fungal infections such as tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea incognito, onychomycosis, and pityrosporum folliculitis.

METHODS: The PubMed database was searched using the terms "dermoscopy" or its synonyms, "tinea capitis", "tinea corporis", "tinea incognito", "onychomycosis" and "pityrosporum folliculitis".

RESULTS: The diagnostic value of dermoscopy is well-recognised in the evaluation of tinea capitis and onychomycosis. There are fewer studies investigating the dermoscopic features of tinea corporis, tinea incognito and pityrosporum folliculitis, but the current data suggest that dermoscopy can aid clinical evaluation of these diseases. Understanding dermoscopic features of cutaneous fungal infection has the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy.

CONCLUSION: Dermoscopy in the evaluation of fungal dermatological diseases has the potential to optimize diagnostic accuracy, reduce unnecessary testing, and, consequently, improve clinical practice.

PMID:35024456 | PMC:PMC8733849 | DOI:10.1002/hsr2.464

Категории: MedLine

The role of long non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Mol Ther Oncolytics. 2021 Dec 6;24:127-138. doi: 10.1016/j.omto.2021.12.001. eCollection 2022 Mar 17.

ABSTRACT

Head and neck cancers are a heterogeneous collection of malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, salivary glands, and thyroid. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) remain poorly understood. Over the past decades, overwhelming evidence has demonstrated the regulatory roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis, including HNSCC. Notably, these lncRNAs have vital roles in gene regulation and affect various aspects of cellular homeostasis, including proliferation, survival, and metastasis. They exert regulating functions by interacting with nucleic acids or proteins and affecting cancer cell signaling. LncRNAs represent a burgeoning field of cancer research, and we are only beginning to understand the importance and complicity of lncRNAs in HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the deregulation and function of lncRNAs in human HNSCC. We also review the working mechanism of lncRNAs in HNSCC pathogenesis and discuss the potential application of lncRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic tools and therapeutic targets in human HNSCC.

PMID:35024439 | PMC:PMC8717422 | DOI:10.1016/j.omto.2021.12.001

Категории: MedLine

Cutaneous signs of nutritional disorders

Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Sep 22;7(5Part A):647-652. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.003. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

This review article focuses on the dermatologic manifestations of selected nutrient deficiencies, including protein-energy and micronutrient-related malnutrition. The various nutrient deficiencies presented may share common features. However, distinctive cutaneous signs may prompt clinicians to consider a nutritional cause and help distinguish a nutrient deficiency from other common dermatologic conditions. The recent reemergence of forgotten nutritional deficiencies, such as scurvy and pellagra, in the context of predisposing risk factors that may uniquely affect women more than men makes this topic timely. Recognition of nutritional disorders is important because appropriate treatment may reverse cutaneous signs and prevent irreversible sequelae.

PMID:35024418 | PMC:PMC8721081 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.09.003

Категории: MedLine
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